Campo Troupial - Icterus jamacaii
Brown Capuchin Monkey - Cebus apella
Associação
Mãe-da-lua
Home
List of Birds
Mammals

Site contents:
in Itapajé, Ceará,
100 km from Fortaleza.
Presentation
Mammals

The avifauna is listed in
Birds of NE Brazil.
frontpage image
Threatened species
Many species of NE Brazil are threatened by extinction. Our reserve helps to protect some of them:
Birds of NE Brazil
in Caatinga, Cerrado,
and other habitats
Methods


Photo equipment
Sound recording
Birding hides
Species identification
Software



Photo equipment

The photographic equipment consisted of a digital Canon 20D camera with an EF 200 F2.8L lens and an EF 300 F2.8L IS lens.


Sound recording

Bird vocalizations were recorded with a Marantz PMD671 (until 03/09/2010) or PMD661 digital recorder (from 04/09/2010 onwards) and a Sennheiser ME67 or ME64 microphone. Sampling was set to 16 bit / 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz, mono, with WAV file format.

The mp3 files available for download from this site were generated with lame version 3.97 and 3.98.

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Birding hides

For photography and observation, I often use self-made bird watching hides, for example this mobile plywood hide, or this observation tower. Hides and tower were positioned wherever I saw a promising situation. For instance, this picture of the cactus parakeet was taken from the observation tower, placed close to a cirigüela tree (Spondias purpurea) with ripe fruits.

Apart from the mobile hides, I also have hides in permanent positions. An example is shown here.

Sometimes, bait was used to attract birds to the vicinity of a hide. For doves and finches, seeds were scattered on the ground. Vultures were lured with sheep intestines.

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Species identification

Species were identified visually, by combining visual and acoustic clues, or by their vocalizations alone.

I found the following books most useful for species identification:

For Passeriformes: "The Birds of South America", by Ridgely and Tudor, vol. 1 (1989), and vol. 2 (1994); later substituted by "Field Guide to the Songbirds of South America" by Ridgely and Tudor 2009; also "Handbook of the Birds of the World", vol. 8 and vol. 9.

For non-Passeriformes: The "Field guide to the Birds of South America" by Mata et al. 2006; "Handbook of the Birds of the World", vol. 1, vol. 3, and vol. 5.

For Cerrado birds: the new field guide by Gwynne et al. 2010.

See also References.

Many thousand sound recordings of Brazilian birds can be found in the websites wikiaves and xeno-canto. Both sites were tremendously useful for identification of unknown voices.

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Software

Most software used in this project is open source software, gratis and easily available. Digital picture processing was done with the gimp. Acoustic data were processed with the wavesurfer, a free sound editor from the Center for Speech Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and with lame, sox and praat. Spectrograms were generated with wavesurfer.

The web pages were created and maintained on a linux system (OpenSuSE , Ubuntu), directly in HTML, with vim, bash scripts and perl. I use a mysql database as a register of the bird species. Many thanks to the Open Software community for their excellent systems and programs.

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